Our website uses cookies to help us provide you with a good experience and allow us to improve the website. Find out more.

Blog

HARVARD REFERENCING: A Brief Guide

HARVARD REFERENCING: A Brief Guide

Harvard referencing consists of two elements: in-text citations and detailed references (references list). You will need to include both of these in your academic work. There are two different types of Harvard Referencing format:

 

A. STANDANDARD (DEFAULT) HARVARD REFERENCING

When applying the default Harvard Referencing format, you need to include the page number(s) only for direct quotes you have taken from a source. You do not need to include the page number(s) for citations where you refer to an author’s work without quoting their ideas, opinions or findings. In other words, if you paraphrase or summarise someone’s work, you do not have to include page number(s).  

 

B. PAGE NUMBER FOR ALL IN-TEXT CITATIONS HARVARD REFERENCING

When applying this type of Harvard Referencing format, you need to include the page number(s) for all in-text citations, regardless of summarising, paraphrasing or referring to their work directly.

 

You do need to include a citation and reference for anything that you quote, summarize, or paraphrase or on any other occasion where you use another person’s work within your writing. You also need to include a citation and reference for definitions, tables, images and statistics that are not entirely your own work.


In-text citations:

Each time you refer to someone else’s work in your assignment, you need to include the author’s name and the date of their work within your text at the point where you discuss their ideas. The format is as follows: 

Author (Year); or (Author, Year)

Example:

  • Armstrong (2012); or (Armstrong, 2012)

 

References List:

Full details for each work you have cited in your work should be given in the references list at end of your document. This allows the reader to find the original work if they wish to and prevents issues with plagiarism. The references list contains all the work you have cited in your piece of work and is arranged alphabetically by author surname. The format is as follows:

Book:

Author, Initials. (Year). Title of Book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

  • Armstrong, M. (2012). Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. 12th ed. London: Kogan Page.

 

PLEASE NOTE: The information that you need to include in each reference is determined by the type of source you are using e.g. if it is a book, journal, newspaper, e-journal, website etc. Please see the table below for detailed information on each type of source.


     

     

    AUTHOR

    YEAR

    TITLE

    PUBLICATION OR ONLINE SOURCE DETAILS

    EXAMPLE

    BOOK

    Identify the author(s) of the book

    Year of publication

    Title of the book

    Place of publication and publisher


    Armstrong, M. (2012). Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. 12th ed. London: KoganPage.

    JOURNAL ARTICLE (printed)

    Identify the author(s) of the article

    Year of publication

    Title of the article

     

    The name of the journal it is from, followed by the issue and volume numbers, and page numbers.

     

    Zaheer, S. (1995). Overcoming the Liability of Foreignness. The Academy of Management Journal, 38(2), pp.341-363.

    WEBSITE

    Identify who is responsible for the information on the website: it may be an organisation or someone writing for the organisation

     

    Check when the information you are using was uploaded to the website, and use this for the year of publication.

     

     

    Title of the first webpage where you find the information, followed by [Online]

     

    The web address and the date you viewed it

     

    Next Retail Ltd. (2014). About Us. [Online] Available at: http://careers.next.co.uk/trainees/aboutnext.aspx#link=tmb. [Accessed: 28th January 2016].

    ELECTRONIC JOURNAL ARTICLE

    Identify the author(s) of the article

    Year of publication

    Title of the article, followed by [e-journal]

     

    The name of the e-journal it is from, followed by the issue and volume numbers, and page numbers. This should then be followed by the web address and the date you viewed it

     

    Appelbaum, H., Sally, H., Jean-Luc, M., & Hisham, S. (2012). Back to the Future: Revisiting Kotter's 1996 Change Model. Journal of Management Development, 31(8), pp. 764-782. [e-journal] Available at: URL. [Accessed: 05th January 2016].

     

    E-BOOK  

    Identify the author(s) of the book

    Year of publication

    Title of the book, followed by [e-book]

     

     

    Place of publication if you can identify it and the publisher, followed by the web address and the date you viewed it

     

    Brown, G., White, G. and Redding, G., 1984. Modern Management. [e-book] London: Redfern Press. Available at: URL. [Accessed: 12th November 2015].